Aquamarine – Understanding its Colour and Clarity

Monday, 26 February 2024
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Aquamarine Birthstone Jewellery

Aquamarine, with its captivating blue hue reminiscent of the ocean, has been prized for centuries for its beauty and symbolism. This gemstone, a type of beryl mineral, holds a unique allure that has fascinated gem enthusiasts and scientists alike. The mesmerizing colour and clarity of Aquamarine are not merely arbitrary; they are the result of intricate geological processes and crystal structure. Understanding the science behind the colour and clarity of Aquamarine can deepen our appreciation for this exquisite gemstone.

Formation and Composition

Aquamarine forms in pegmatite veins, which are coarse-grained igneous rocks found in granitic formations. These veins are often the result of hydrothermal activity, where hot water rich in minerals circulates through fractures in the Earth’s crust. Beryllium, Aluminum, Silicon, and Oxygen are the primary elements that compose Aquamarine, along with trace amounts of other elements such as iron, which play a crucial role in its coloration.

The crystal structure of Aquamarine belongs to the hexagonal system, characterized by six-sided prisms and a trigonal symmetry. This arrangement influences the gemstone’s physical properties, including its clarity and colour.

The Influence of Iron

Aquamarine EarringsAquamarine – Understanding its Colour and Clarity, the enchanting blue-green colour of Aquamarine is primarily attributed to the presence of iron ions within its crystal lattice. Iron impurities absorb specific wavelengths of light, resulting in the characteristic hue of the gemstone. The intensity and tone of the colour can vary depending on the concentration and oxidation state of the iron ions present.

Interestingly, the presence of ferrous iron (Fe2+) tends to produce a more intense blue colour, while ferric iron (Fe3+) contributes to a greener hue. The balance between these oxidation states, along with other factors such as the crystal’s size and purity, determines the overall coloration of the aquamarine.

Clarity and Inclusions

Aquamarine is renowned for its transparency and clarity, which are highly valued in the gem trade. However, like all natural gemstones, Aquamarine can contain inclusions—internal imperfections or foreign materials—that affect its appearance and value.

The most common inclusions in Aquamarine include liquid-filled cavities, mineral crystals, and growth tubes. These inclusions form during the gem’s crystallization process and provide valuable insights into its geological history. While minor inclusions may not significantly detract from the gem’s beauty, larger or more prominent inclusions can affect its transparency and overall aesthetic appeal.

Enhancements and Treatments

In the gemstone industry, Aquamarine may undergo treatments to enhance its colour and clarity. One common method involves heat treatment, where the gem is subjected to controlled heating to reduce the visibility of inclusions and improve its colour saturation. Heat treatment can also help remove yellow or brown undertones, resulting in a purer blue hue.

While heat treatment is widely accepted and does not typically diminish the value of Aquamarine, other more invasive treatments such as dyeing or irradiation are less common and may affect the gem’s natural properties and long-term stability. It is essential for consumers to inquire about any treatments applied to Aquamarine and purchase from reputable sources to ensure authenticity and transparency.


Aquamarine’s mesmerizing colour and clarity are the result of a complex interplay of geological processes, crystal structure, and trace elements such as iron. From its formation within the Earth’s crust to its journey to the jewellery showcase, Aquamarine embodies both natural beauty and scientific intrigue. By understanding the science behind its coloration and clarity, we can gain a deeper appreciation for this enchanting gemstone and the wonders of the natural world.



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